Artesunate Injection for Malaria Diagnosis of Malaria - Health Care - Pharmaceuticals
The classical (but rarely observed) malaria attack lasts 6–10 hours.
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It consists of
- A cold stage (sensation of cold, shivering)
- A hot stage (fever, headaches, vomiting; seizures in young children); and
- Finally a sweating stage (sweats, return to normal temperature, tiredness).
Classically (but infrequently observed) the attacks occur every second day with the “tertian” parasites (P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. ovale) and every third day with the “quartan” parasite (P. malariae).
More commonly, the patient presents with a combination of the following symptoms:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Body aches
- General malaise
In countries where cases of malaria are infrequent, these symptoms may be attributed to influenza, a cold, or other common infections, especially if malaria is not suspected. Conversely, in countries where malaria is frequent, residents often recognize the symptoms as malaria and treat themselves without seeking diagnostic confirmation (“presumptive treatment”).
Physical findings may include the following:
- Elevated temperatures
- Enlarged spleen
- Mild jaundice
- Enlargement of the liver
- Increased respiratory rate
Diagnosis of malaria depends on the demonstration of parasites in the blood, usually by microscopy. Additional laboratory findings may include mild anemia, mild decrease in blood platelets (thrombocytopenia), elevation of bilirubin, and elevation of aminotransferases.
Severe malaria occurs when infections are complicated by serious organ failures or abnormalities in the patient’s blood or metabolism. The manifestations of severe malaria include the following:
- Cerebral malaria, with abnormal behavior, impairment of consciousness, seizures, coma, or other neurologic abnormalities
- Severe anemia due to hemolysis (destruction of the red blood cells)
- Hemoglobinuria (hemoglobin in the urine) due to hemolysis
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), an inflammatory reaction in the lungs that inhibits oxygen exchange, which may occur even after the parasite counts have decreased in response to treatment
- Abnormalities in blood coagulation
- Low blood pressure caused by cardiovascular collapse
- Acute kidney injury
- Hyperparasitemia, where more than 5% of the red blood cells are infected by malaria parasites
- Metabolic acidosis (excessive acidity in the blood and tissue fluids), often in association with hypoglycemia
- Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose). Hypoglycemia may also occur in pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria, or after treatment with quinine.
Severe malaria is a medical emergency and should be treated urgently and aggressively.