Cardiovascular Consequences of Acute Kidney Injury
- Acute kidney injury (AKI) is recognized as a potential risk factor for future cardiovascular events, especially heart failure.
- Up to 60% of patients with severe AKI who are admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) die; the long-term risk of death associated with AKI is also increased.
- Preclinical models and biomarkers have identified several likely pathways, apparently involving mitochondrial injury, inflammation, cellular death, and profibrotic.
- The cardiac consequences of AKI may be mediated by galectin-3 (Gal-3), as shown in studies of mice with AKI in which Gal-3 induced cardiac inflammation, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac failure. Furthermore, increased expression of Gal-3 has been associated with cardiac damage after AKI in critically ill patients.
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