Enhancing low cost stainless steel implants: bioactive silica–based sol–gel coatings with wollastonite particles
A hybrid organic–inorganic sol–gel coating with the addition of wollastonite particles is used as a potential solution to improve performance of low cost AISI 316L stainless steel. This work is focused on characterising the coatings by studying their synthesis and deposition, electrochemical, and in vitro and in vivo response. The coated implants presented in vitro Ca/P–rich apatitic precursors phases on their surface and acceptable electrochemical behaviour. The in vivo response regarding bone formation seems to be excellent either with the implant in contact with bone marrow, in contact with the endostium or in contact with the trabecular bone. The bioactive and regenerative responses of bone tissue to the TEOS–MTES–wollastonite system over–compensate the coating deterioration reaction, making these coatings as a good way to improve osseo–integration of stainless steel for long term use implants.
Keywords: stainless steel implants, bioactive coatings, bone formation, corrosion, osteo–integration, SAXS, silica, sol–gel coatings, wollastonite particles, biomaterials, bone marrow, endostium, trabecular bone, regenerative response, bone tissue