FDA Approves BAVENCIO (avelumab) plus Axitinib Combination for Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
Darmstadt, Germany --
- BAVENCIO is the first anti-PD-L1 in combination with axitinib approved by FDA for first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC)
- Phase III study showed combination significantly lowered risk of disease progression or death by 31% and extended progression-free survival by 5.4 months for patients with advanced RCC compared with sunitinib
- Combination approved based on Phase III data in an overall population that included patients regardless of PD-L1 expression and across favorable, intermediate and poor prognostic groups
- Additional regulatory reviews for BAVENCIO plus axitinib in advanced RCC are underway worldwide, including in the European Union and Japan
Merck and Pfizer Inc. (NYSE: PFE) today announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved BAVENCIO® (avelumab) in combination with axitinib for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This is the first FDA approval for an anti-PD-L1 therapy as part of a combination regimen for patients with advanced RCC. The approval of BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib was based on positive results from the Phase III JAVELIN Renal 101 study (NCT02684006 ), in which the combination significantly improved median progression-free survival (PFS) compared with sunitinib by more than five months in the intent-to-treat (ITT) patient population (HR: 0.69 [95% CI: 0.56–0.84]; 2-sided p-value=0.0002; median PFS for BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib: 13.8 months [95% CI: 11.1-NE]; sunitinib: 8.4 months [95% CI: 6.9-11.1]). The ITT population included patients regardless of PD-L1 expression and across IMDC (International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database) prognostic risk groups (favorable 21%, intermediate 62% and poor 16%).1
“As we look to continue to improve outcomes for people with advanced RCC, new treatment approaches have the potential to benefit patients,” said Robert J. Motzer, M.D., Jack and Dorothy Byrne Chair in Clinical Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, US, and principal investigator for JAVELIN Renal 101. “With today’s FDA approval of avelumab in combination with axitinib, we can now offer patients with advanced RCC a first-line treatment option that combines a PD-L1 immunotherapy with a well-known VEGFR TKI to provide a significant reduction in the risk of disease progression or death and doubling of the response rate compared with sunitinib.”
RCC is a type of cancer where PD-L1 expression may contribute to inhibition of the immune response against the tumor.2 It is also a highly vascular tumor, in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role.3
“A kidney cancer diagnosis is life-changing for both patients and their loved ones, and having a treatment strategy for their disease quickly becomes a priority,” said Dena Battle, President, KCCure. “The approval of new treatments such as BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib gives patients with advanced RCC much-needed options.”
There is a significant unmet need for first-line treatments that delay progression and have an acceptable safety profile. Approximately 20% to 30% of patients are first diagnosed with RCC at the advanced stage, and 30% of patients treated for an earlier stage go on to develop metastases.4,5 About half of patients living with advanced RCC do not go on to receive additional treatment after first-line therapy,6,7 for reasons that may include poor performance status or adverse events from their initial treatment.6,8,9
“Today’s approval of BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib builds on Pfizer’s long heritage in bringing innovation to the RCC community with the hopes of making a significant and meaningful impact on the lives of patients,” said Andy Schmeltz, Global President, Pfizer Oncology. “For more than 12 years, Pfizer has led the field in its commitment to developing new treatments for patients with advanced kidney cancer.”
“With today’s FDA approval of BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib, we feel privileged that we can offer patients with first-line advanced renal cell carcinoma a new treatment option,” said Rehan Verjee, President of EMD Serono, Merck’s Biopharma business in the US, and Global Head of Innovative Medicine Franchises, Merck.
In JAVELIN Renal 101, the objective response rate (ORR) was doubled in the ITT population with BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib versus sunitinib (51.4% [95% CI: 46.6-56.1] vs. 25.7% [95% CI: 21.7-30.0]). With a median overall survival (OS) follow-up of 19 months, data for the trial’s other primary endpoint of OS were immature, with 27% of deaths in the ITT population, and the trial is continuing as planned. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were diarrhea, fatigue, hypertension, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, mucositis, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, dysphonia, decreased appetite, hypothyroidism, rash, hepatotoxicity, cough, dyspnea, abdominal pain and headache. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 35% of patients receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib. The incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) was higher with BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib versus sunitinib.1 Findings from the study have been published in The New England Journal of Medicine.10
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) validated the Type II variation application for BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib in advanced RCC in March 2019, and a supplemental application for BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib in unresectable or metastatic RCC was submitted in Japan in January 2019. The combination of BAVENCIO and axitinib is only approved for the first-line treatment of advanced RCC in the United States.
About Renal Cell Carcinoma
In 2019, an estimated 73,820 new cases of kidney cancer will be diagnosed in the US, and approximately 14,770 people will die from the disease.11 RCC is the most common form of kidney cancer, accounting for about 2% to 3% of all cancers in adults.12,13 Approximately 20% to 30% of patients with kidney cancer are first diagnosed at the advanced stage.4 The five-year survival rate for patients with metastatic RCC is approximately 12%.14
About the JAVELIN Renal 101 study
The Phase III JAVELIN Renal 101 study is a randomized (1:1), multicenter, open-label study of BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib in 886 patients with untreated advanced RCC regardless of tumor PD-L1 expression [intent-to-treat (ITT) population]. Patients with autoimmune disease or conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression were excluded. The major efficacy outcome measures were PFS as assessed by a Blinded Independent Central Review (BICR) using RECIST v1.1 and OS in patients with PD-L1-positive tumors using a clinical trial assay (PD-L1 expression level ≥1%). If PFS was statistically significant in patients with PD-L1-positive tumors, it was then tested in the ITT population. The hazard ratio for PFS in patients with PD-L1-positive tumors was HR 0.61 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.79). PFS and OS in the ITT population, overall response and safety are included as secondary endpoints. The study is continuing for OS.
About the JAVELIN Clinical Development Program
The clinical development program for avelumab, known as JAVELIN, involves at least 30 clinical programs and about 10,000 patients evaluated across more than 15 different tumor types. In addition to RCC, these tumor types include gastric/gastro-esophageal junction cancer, head and neck cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and urothelial carcinoma.
About BAVENCIO® (avelumab)
BAVENCIO is a human anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibody. BAVENCIO has been shown in preclinical models to engage both the adaptive and innate immune functions. By blocking the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 receptors, BAVENCIO has been shown to release the suppression of the T cell-mediated antitumor immune response in preclinical models.15-17 BAVENCIO has also been shown to induce NK cell-mediated direct tumor cell lysis via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro.17-19 In November 2014, Merck and Pfizer announced a strategic alliance to co-develop and co-commercialize BAVENCIO.
In September 2017, the European Commission granted conditional marketing authorization for BAVENCIO as a monotherapy for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). BAVENCIO is currently approved for patients with MCC in more than 45 countries globally, with the majority of these approvals in a broad indication that is not limited to a specific line of treatment.
BAVENCIO® (avelumab) in combination with axitinib is indicated in the US for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
In the US, the FDA granted accelerated approval for BAVENCIO for the treatment of (i) adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC) and (ii) patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy, or have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. These indications are approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for these indications may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.
BAVENCIO Safety Profile from the EU Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)
The special warnings and precautions for use for BAVENCIO include infusion-related reactions and immune-related adverse reactions (such as pneumonitis, hepatitis, colitis, endocrinopathies, nephritis and renal dysfunction, and other adverse reactions).
The SmPC list of the most common adverse reactions in patients with solid tumors includes fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, constipation, infusion-related reactions, and weight loss and vomiting.
Axitinib Important Safety Information from the US FDA Approved Label
In the study of advanced RCC after failure of one prior systemic therapy, the warnings and precautions for axitinib include hypertension, including hypertensive crisis, arterial and venous thrombotic events, hemorrhagic events, cardiac failure, gastrointestinal perforation and fistula, hypothyroidism, wound healing complications, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS), proteinuria, liver enzyme elevation, hepatic impairment, and fetal harm during pregnancy.
Common adverse events (reported in at least 20% of patients) in patients receiving axitinib were diarrhea, hypertension, fatigue, decreased appetite, nausea, dysphonia, hand-foot syndrome, weight decreased, vomiting, asthenia, and constipation.